While every programming language is different, they are all based on the same fundamentals. Over the years the develop, grow and change. In school I have been taught many basic programming languages including; Java, C, C++, XHTML, CSS, PHP, SQL, Assembly and a few others.
Below is a picture of the evolution of programming languages with a small example of each language (Click the picture for a larger view).
If your interested in keeping up with the current stats of what is the most popular programming language. Check this site out: TIOBE Programming Community Index, they update their index every year!